The Streets of Old Barnaul
Lva Tolstogo Ulitsa (Tobolskaya Ulitsa)
The very first street (Rus. “ulitsa”) in the city, initially named Ryaposovskaya after one of the citizens – Ivan Yemelyanovich Ryapasov, a carpenter. In 1752, the street was renamed Bolshaya (lit. “Big”), beginning at the Silver Smelting Works’ office building and stretching all the way to the Ob River. In five more years, the street would be officially renamed Tobolskaya – after Tobolsk, the main city of Siberia Governorate. The last renaming was in 1910, after Barnaul community decided to call it Lva Tolstogo (after Leo Tolstoy, a Russian writer). It became a commercial street, with two-storied houses and shops of the most prominent merchant families only – the Morozov, the Sukhov, the Smirnov. A typical building had a shop on the ground floor and offices or apartments on the first floor.
Lenina Prospekt (Moskovsky Prospekt)
Lenina Prospekt (lit. “Lenin Avenue”) was first called Bogoroditsky Pereulok (lit. “Our Lady Lane”), after the Church of Our Lady of the Way, built in 1759 with the funding from merchant Purtov. The 1785 city plan shows an expanded 42 meter-wide lane, which turned it into the city’s main street. The street was called Moskovsky Pereulok (lit. “Moscow Avenue”) in early 19th century, since its northern end opened the way to the Moscow-Siberian route. Early 20th century saw the pereulok become Barnaul’s main trading area. The street became lined with brick shops with big display windows and signs, merchant mansions. Electric lighting was installed in 1900. In 1913, the City Duma decreed to stretch Moskovsky Prospekt northward, without altering its width and the boulevard in the middle. Between 1917 and 1924, the street went through multiple renamings: Bulvarnaya (lit. “Boulevard”), Sadovaya (lit. “Garden”) and Sovetsky Pereulok (lit. “Soviet Lane”), finally becoming Lenina Prospekt in 1924.
Nikitina Ulitsa (Biyskaya Ulitsa)
Initially named Biyskaya, the street (Rus. “ulitsa”) was renamed Nikitina in 1927, after Ivan Nikitin, a Russian poet, who was one of Vladimir Lenin’s childhood favourites. In 1905 – 1907, Nikitina became the street where the City Duma decreed to build the first public library and the first ambulance station (Nikitina Ulitsa, 90). The 1917 fire destroyed most of the wooden buildings on the street segment stretching from the Ob River to Soborny Pereulok (Sotsialistichesky Prospekt). The fire did a lot of damage to several stone buildings as well, but they were completely restored later.
Korolenko Ulitsa (Tomskaya Ulitsa)
Initially known as Tomskaya Ulitsa, the street (Rus. “ulitsa”) was renamed Korolenko in 1927 after Vladimir Korolenko, a Russian writer. In the 18th century, the street was occupied by soldiers houses, mud huts and smelting works smithies. In the 19th century, several prominent Barnaul merchants – Sudovskaya, Olyunina, Yakovlev – built their mansions on Tomskaya. The street was also home to Barnaul Public Assembly, the house of the head of Altai Mining Works and a Lutheran church.
Gogolya Ulitsa (Kuznetskaya Ulitsa)
Initially known as Kuznetskaya Ulitsa, this street (Rus. “ulitsa”) was founded in the middle of the 18th century. The name “Kuznetskaya” was chosen because the street pointed towards Kuznetsky Ostrog (lit. “fort”; present-day city of Novokuznetsk). In 1902, the City Duma decreed to rename the street Gogolya Ulitsa to commemorate the 50-year death anniversary of Nikolai Gogol, a Russian writer. On the street were the houses of famous merchants Vorsin and Polyakov.
Pushkina Ulitsa (Irkutskaya Liniya)
The street (Rus. “ulitsa”) supposedly appeared between 1730 and 1740, while the first documented mentions can be found on the city plans dated 1748 and 1752. In the 18th century, it was a residential street lined with wooden houses with gardens occupied by military officers, members of the clergy and government officials. Ivan Polzunov, the inventor of the first two-cylinder steam engine, also lived on this street (the modern-day address is Pushkina Ulitsa, 78). The street was first called Irkutskaya Liniya (lit. “Irkutsk Lane”) and was renamed Pushkina (after Alexander Pushkin, a Russian poet) in 1899.
Polzunova Ulitsa (Petropavlovskaya Liniya)
The street (Rus. “ulitsa”) was named after Ivan Polzunov, the inventor of the first two-cylinder steam engine in the world, in 1947, although its existence may be traced to between 1730 and 1740 – the time when Barnaul Silver Smelting Works was founded. The street’s first name was Petropavlovskaya Liniya (lit. “Peter and Paul Lane”), called so after the first ever church in Barnaul – one in honour of Saints Peter and Paul – was built there. The street went from the Ob River to Krasnoarmeyskiy Prospekt. After the 1917 Russian Revolution and the Russian Civil War, the street was renamed Respubliki Ulitsa (lit. “Republic Street”). In 1963, Polzunova was joined with Naberezhnaya Ulitsa (lit. “Riverbank Street”) that went along the Barnaulka River between Tsiolkovskogo Ulitsa and Sotsialistichesky Prospekt.
Malo-Tobolskaya Ulitsa (L.V. Vaksmana Ulitsa)
One of the oldest streets (Rus. “ulitsa”) in Barnaul, it takes its name from the artisans that moved here from the city of Tobolsk. Trade on Malo-Tobolskaya started in 1748. The street was home to trading houses of merchant Laletin (Malo-Tobolskaya, 34) and the Sukhov merchant family (Malo-Tobolskaya, 36). During the Great Patriotic War (on January 15, 1945), the street was renamed after L.V. Vaksman, who was a famous Altai Krai doctor. In 1952, however, the street got its historical name back.
Sotsialistichesky Prospekt (Soborny Pereulok)
Founded in the 19th century, the street was first called Soborny Pereulok (lit. “Cathedral Lane”). The name originated from the Cathedral of Saints Peter and Paul, whose bell tower adorned the street’s vista. In the late 19th century, the pereulok became home to merchant mansions of the Sukhov and Morozov families. A women’s progymnasium and Illusion Cinematography were located at the Irkutskaya Ulitsa (Pushkina Ulitsa) intersection. In 1916, the street was renamed Soborny Prospekt (lit. “Cathedral Avenue”), while in 1921 it was cobbled and in 1927 renamed Sotsialistichesky Prospekt (lit. “Socialist Avenue”).
Krasnoarmeisky Prospekt (Konyushenny Pereulok)
One of the oldest streets in the city, it emerged back in the 18th century and was called Konyushenny Pereulok (lit. Stables Lane), as the street started at the stables of Barnaul Copper and Silver Smelting Works. The avenue (Rus. prospekt) started at the city pond (now the grounds adjacent to home improvement store «Arsidom») and headed north-west. Konyushenny Pereulok was the street the «Tsarina of Vases» passed through on her way to Saint Petersburg in February 1843. In the early 19th century, the street was covered with dross residue from molten silver. During the Soviet era, the street was renamed Krasnoarmeisky Prospekt (lit. Red Army Avenue).